Water Treatment Fundamentals
Publié le 21/10/2018 à 12:23,
Improving the quality water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.
Mots clefs :
Community Level. A public/private water treatment facility aims to generate water safe to drink and pleasant to taste, as well as being sure that there's enough water to deliver the needs of the city.
Raw, untreated water emanates from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface streams being a river or lake. It flows or possibly pumped to a treatment facility. The second it is there, the water is treated beforehand to remove debris - like leaves and silt. It goes through a number of treatment processes, including disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that cause diseases. Once the treatment is completed, water flows out by way of a system of pumps and pipes, which are often known as the distribution system.
You will find there's slight difference of water course of treatment at various places, based on the technology from the plant and water would have to be processed, however the fundamental principles are mainly the identical.
Coagulation / Flocculation. With the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, at times polymer, is positioned in untreated/raw water. This mixture causes tiny dirt particles in water to become fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to make bigger, heavier particles - known as flocs - which can be easily removed through filtration/settling.
Sedimentation. When water and floc particles feel the treatment process, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip on the bottom. Floc collected about the lowermost area of the basin is termed sludge. This holds through pipes to reach the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state isn't a part of Direct Filtration and thus, the floc is slowly removed through filtration.
Filtration. Water goes thru a filter intended to remove water particles. The filters contain layers of gravel and sand, plus other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and enhances the efficacy of disinfection. The filters are cleaned on a regular basis by using backwashing.
Disinfection. Before water retreats into the distribution system, it really is disinfected to make certain that bacteria that causes diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine is employed since it a great in disinfecting and looking after residual concentration to protect from possible biological contamination within the system of water distribution.
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